||Images of the Reigi church seal
||The Ecclesiastical Law of 1832 regulated
the use of the church seal in the Lutheran churches. The Lutheran
pastors had to present images of the church seals to the Evangelic
Lutheran Consistory of Estonia for approval in 1834.
The seal of each church was divided into two parts: the image surrounded
by the legend. The seals could depict besides evangelic symbols, also
saints with their attributes, a church building or even only the name
of the church. Also quotations from the Bible are not rare. The most
widely used evangelic symbol is the cross. Among various forms of
crosses the most popular is the Latin cross or Martyr's cross symbolizing
the Crucifixion of Christ and his Passion. But also other forms of
crosses such as the cross paty, the Lazarus, St Andrew, forked, lily,
anchor and order crosses were depicted. The most often used symbols
besides the cross are God's Eye symbolizing the Holy Trinity, a cup,
a pigeon symbolizing the Holy Spirit, the Lamb holding the cross (the
suffering Saviour) or the flag (the victorious Saviour), a torch or
a branch of a palm.
The initial church seal remained largely the same over a long period
of time. The image was modified a little or the language of the legend
has been changed.
||Out of all images presented in 1834 to the Estonian
Consistory only one has been preserved. The right side of the image
of the Reigi church seal depicts Jesus standing under the tree with
his right hand blessing the fishermen and the left side a lighthouse
standing on the rocky shores of the sea.
Legend: SIEGD: PIHLA ODER IESUS KIRCHE ZU ROICKS.
1187-2-500, p. 192
In the parish archive of the Reigi church, a seal from the year
1886 has been preserved: the image has remained the same but the
text has been changed a little
EAA 3170-1-56, p. 2
||The universal conscription law promulgated
in Russia in 1874 required all men at the age of 21 to perform the
duty of military service. The term of service in the land forces lasted
15 years (out of this 6 years in the army and 9 years in the reserve)
and in the naval forces 10 years (7 years in the army and 3 years
in the reserve). Only 25-30 % of young men actually did their military
service. A number of young men took advantage of several rules to
For example, family status could give the exemption from conscription.
So, Johan Jaska, head of a farm at Vana-Prangli manor tried to relieve
his eldest son Jüri from the duty of active service as his
long absence could cause considerable hardships for the farm. In
November 1877, also the local township administration petitioned
for the exemption of Jüri Jaska from conscription and had success.
Jüri Jaska received exemption from conscription.
||Hetzeli 1/3 - Liivi 4 - 100
The Rector of the University, A. S. Budilovitsch decided in November
1900 that the dormitory has to be built on a plot of land on Toome
Hill belonging to the university. On this plot of land on which nowadays
the archives is located at the beginning of the 19th century lived
Professor Wilhelm Friedrich Hetzel (also Hezel). After him the place
was called Hetzelburg. In the list of the streets of Tartu the name
"Hetzeli" appears in 1890.
||The dormitory (nowadays archives) at 1/3
Hetzel Street was constructed in 1901-1904. The four-storey building
with two wings was designed by the university architect Reinhold Guleke
|The 265 000 rubles worth of construction
had to be completed by the end of 1903 but it took longer and the
orthodox blessing ceremony was held on October
24, 1904 (see press release: Postimees.
October 26, 1904).
||It is common that children complain to
their parents that the teachers do not treat them fairly. However,
it can also happen that schoolchildren annoy the teacher and even
the headmaster can behave in such a manner that teachers consider
it better to leave the school.
In 1932, the Estonian language teacher Liisu Teder left German Gymnasium
in Pärnu, because, as she alleged in her letter to the school
board, the headmaster Freymann`s behaviour had annoyed her.
This what she writes in her letter decades ago can be interesting
||Ivan Orav got a a baby
Through his memories and jokes about "tiblad" (abusive name
for Russians used by Estonians) Ivan Orav has become one of the most
well known literary character in nowadays Estonia.
In the birth-register of Tõhela-Murru Orthodox Church from
the year 1889 Ivan Orav has been registered as the father of little
Ljudmilla. Before the Soviet troops (or "tiblad") arrived
in Estonia in autumn 1939 he changed his name to "Jaan".
||The choral society Lyra in Narva
||In 2004 we celebrate the 135th anniversary
of our song festivals. In June, local song festivals will be held
and at the beginning of July the XXIV all-Estonian song festival and
the XVII all-Estonian dance festival will take place in Tallinn.
||Traditions have their beginnings and these
in turn have had their own examples to follow. Both the Baltic-German
and Estonian choral societies began to be founded on the German model.
The mid-19th century witnessed the emergence of several choirs.
Also in Narva in 1863-1864 the attempts were made to found a choral
society Lyra alongside the already existing one (Harmonie).
||Though its foundation was never officially
recognized by the local authorities, the statutes of the society were
drawn up as well as the coat
flag and seal
were designed. The latter ones, presented as the record of the month,
will indicate that the symbolics of the orchestral and choral societies
has been similar, although the members of the societies spoke different
EAA 3429-1-6, p. 5
||In the year 1899 the Ministry of Education
of Russia decided to establish university dormitories. In the same
year the idea to build a dormitory for the University of Tartu that
could provide housing for 150 students came about. The dormitory,
designed by the university architect Reinhold Guleke, was built on
Toome Hill in Hetzel Street (nowadays Liivi Street). It was constructed
in the years 1901-1904. One of the important issues was to appoint
its director. Rector A. N. Filippov appointed Jermolai Gravit as its
director in May 1904. The blessing and the official opening of the
building took place only on October 24.
||In May we present as a record of the month
the appeal of the university rector A. N. Filippov to the Curator
of the Tartu Educational District (from May 5, 1904) to confirm Jermolai
Gravit as the dormitory director. His term of office started on
EAA 384-1-1350, pp. 184,
||The extramarital children of Bernhard
All 9 children of Ravassaare manor owner Bernhard (Berend) Alexander
von Drewnick (13.02.1772-17.08.1845) were extramarital children and
all they had the family name "von Drewnick". Bernhard von
Drewnick had children with two women. The mother of the first children,
Anna, the daughter of Kurro Hans, was the servent girl in the manor
and she also in the end (April 24, 1834) married with Bernhard Alexander
von Drewnick. The mother of two children was another servant girl
in the manor, Leeno. Leeno`s son Friedrich August was born on January
6, 1806 and Anna`s daughter Frederike Wilhelmine on February 3, 1806.
In the soul revision list of Ravassaare manor from the year 1816 Berend
von Drewnick has been enrolled with all his children (dessen natürliche
Söhne, dessen natürliche Töchter).
Both mothers, however, are not.
1865-3-168, p. 4, 15
|Drewnicks originated from Poland. Peter
Drewnick, leasing a number of state estates in the guberniyas of Estonia
and Livonia, was awarded with the title of nobleman according to Senat's
decree from 4 March 1764 and was enrolled in the list of Livonian
noblemen according to the decision of the Livonian Knighthood from
31 January 1765.
In 1797, the family was enrolled in the list of the Estonian noblemen.
|On the shield of the Drewnick coat
of arms, demarcated horizontally in two fields, there are at the
top the black eagle head on a red background, at the bottom the oak
tree on a blue background.
||Estonian Old Woman's Scholarship|
In 1903, a houseowner in Tartu, Taavet Bergmann (1826-1907), established
Taavet and Sofia Bergmann Foundation that was intended to promote
Estonian literature and to support the studies of the Estonian youth.
A century ago, on March 18, 1904 the statute of the Foundation was
approved. At the beginning a number of the leaders of the Estonian
national movement like
H. Koppel, J. Hurt, V. Reiman, J. Tõnisson, O. Kallas, K. Parts
J. Jõgever served as its council members. From the initial
500 roubles the Foundation funds started to grow by means of several
donations. Also all the council members themselves were actively looking
for the potential donors. For example, H. Koppel asked Mattias Johann
Eisen for support as the latter had received a large sum of money
(5000 roubles) from his mother. M. J. Eisen, although eagerly willing
to donate money for the purpose of promoting Estonian literature,
set his own conditions: the money had to be preserved until the death
of his mother and interest on it had to be used for supporting his
Villem Reiman, who according to
Johann Kõpp was inclined to fanaticism when it came to promoting
Estonian national interests, expressed his pleasure in a strange
way. He wrote in his letter to Heinrich Koppel: "we will, of
course, accept the conditions set by Eisen. Such a fat morsel is
not offered that often. We can wait some years till the old woman
will lie under the sod".
2105-1-10, p. 5
||As M. Eisen feared that using money for
such a purpose could evoke anger and hatred in his relatives, he asked
to keep both his and his mother's name in secret.
2105-1-10, p. 15
The donation was registered by the Foundation as the
"Estonian Old Woman's Scholarship".
||Count Ludwig August Mellin
Until the 15th century his family was called MALLIN (also Mallyn,
Malin) after the village of Mallin near Parchim. Mallins was one of
the many German noble families in Lower Saxony and Westphal. On June
4, 1229 the Duke of Mecklenburg Johann granted the chapel of Parchim
castle with 6 Haken in the village of Bocken as a fief to Gerhard
von Malyn, the forefather of Mellins. The field marshal Jürgen
Mellin (2.11.1633 Finland- 13.01.1713 Stettin) received the title
of count from the Swedish King Karl XI on August 22, 1696.
The record confirming the awarding of the title of count to Jürgen
854-3-543, p. 16
coat of arms
|Ludwig August Mellin was born in Tuhala
manor in the County of Harju on Janury 23, 1754 as the eigth child
of Carl Johann und Anna Gertrude Mellin. Ludwig August Mellin is known
in history as the author of "The Atlas of Livonia". His
main work was published as a supplement to the A. W. Hupel`s book
"Topographische Nachrichten..." in Riga. The atlas consisted
of the general map and 14 maps of the counties with a scale of 1:200
000. It contains ca 7000 place names from Estonia. So-called Mellin`s
atlas was the greatest achievement of the 18th century cartography
in the Russian Baltic provinces.
||In January 16th, 1895, Järvamaa's
provost Gustav Felix Rinne, upon the request of Vana-Põltsamaa
Parish Council, issues the certificate in Russian language for registering
Hans Sutt and his family into the family list of the parish.
The certificate is equipped with the supplement written in Estonian
by Rinne where he is defending the use of Estonian in local proceedings.