2004

December Images of the Reigi church seal
  The Ecclesiastical Law of 1832 regulated the use of the church seal in the Lutheran churches. The Lutheran pastors had to present images of the church seals to the Evangelic Lutheran Consistory of Estonia for approval in 1834.
The seal of each church was divided into two parts: the image surrounded by the legend. The seals could depict besides evangelic symbols, also saints with their attributes, a church building or even only the name of the church. Also quotations from the Bible are not rare. The most widely used evangelic symbol is the cross. Among various forms of crosses the most popular is the Latin cross or Martyr's cross symbolizing the Crucifixion of Christ and his Passion. But also other forms of crosses such as the cross paty, the Lazarus, St Andrew, forked, lily, anchor and order crosses were depicted. The most often used symbols besides the cross are God's Eye symbolizing the Holy Trinity, a cup, a pigeon symbolizing the Holy Spirit, the Lamb holding the cross (the suffering Saviour) or the flag (the victorious Saviour), a torch or a branch of a palm.
The initial church seal remained largely the same over a long period of time. The image was modified a little or the language of the legend has been changed.
  Out of all images presented in 1834 to the Estonian Consistory only one has been preserved. The right side of the image of the Reigi church seal depicts Jesus standing under the tree with his right hand blessing the fishermen and the left side a lighthouse standing on the rocky shores of the sea.
 

Legend: SIEG•D: PIHLA ODER IESUS KIRCHE ZU ROICKS.
EAA 1187-2-500, p. 192

In the parish archive of the Reigi church, a seal from the year 1886 has been preserved: the image has remained the same but the text has been changed a little —
SIEGEL•DER•PIHLA•DER•IESUS•KIRCHE•ZU•ROICKS
EAA 3170-1-56, p. 2

November A petition
  The universal conscription law promulgated in Russia in 1874 required all men at the age of 21 to perform the duty of military service. The term of service in the land forces lasted 15 years (out of this 6 years in the army and 9 years in the reserve) and in the naval forces 10 years (7 years in the army and 3 years in the reserve). Only 25-30 % of young men actually did their military service. A number of young men took advantage of several rules to avoid conscription.

For example, family status could give the exemption from conscription. So, Johan Jaska, head of a farm at Vana-Prangli manor tried to relieve his eldest son Jüri from the duty of active service as his long absence could cause considerable hardships for the farm. In November 1877, also the local township administration petitioned for the exemption of Jüri Jaska from conscription and had success. Jüri Jaska received exemption from conscription.
EAA 314-1-1299

October Hetzeli 1/3 - Liivi 4 - 100
The Rector of the University, A. S. Budilovitsch decided in November 1900 that the dormitory has to be built on a plot of land on Toome Hill belonging to the university. On this plot of land on which nowadays the archives is located at the beginning of the 19th century lived Professor Wilhelm Friedrich Hetzel (also Hezel). After him the place was called Hetzelburg. In the list of the streets of Tartu the name "Hetzeli" appears in 1890.
The dormitory (nowadays archives) at 1/3 Hetzel Street was constructed in 1901-1904. The four-storey building with two wings was designed by the university architect Reinhold Guleke (1834-1927).
The 265 000 rubles worth of construction had to be completed by the end of 1903 but it took longer and the orthodox blessing ceremony was held on October 24, 1904 (see press release: Postimees. October 26, 1904).
September Schoolyear starts
  It is common that children complain to their parents that the teachers do not treat them fairly. However, it can also happen that schoolchildren annoy the teacher and even the headmaster can behave in such a manner that teachers consider it better to leave the school.
In 1932, the Estonian language teacher Liisu Teder left German Gymnasium in Pärnu, because, as she alleged in her letter to the school board, the headmaster Freymann`s behaviour had annoyed her.
This what she writes in her letter decades ago can be interesting also nowadays.
EAA 4533-1-190
July Ivan Orav got a a baby
Through his memories and jokes about "tiblad" (abusive name for Russians used by Estonians) Ivan Orav has become one of the most well known literary character in nowadays Estonia.
In the birth-register of Tõhela-Murru Orthodox Church from the year 1889 Ivan Orav has been registered as the father of little Ljudmilla. Before the Soviet troops (or "tiblad") arrived in Estonia in autumn 1939 he changed his name to "Jaan".
EAA 1987-1-15
June The choral society Lyra in Narva
  In 2004 we celebrate the 135th anniversary of our song festivals. In June, local song festivals will be held and at the beginning of July the XXIV all-Estonian song festival and the XVII all-Estonian dance festival will take place in Tallinn.
  Traditions have their beginnings and these in turn have had their own examples to follow. Both the Baltic-German and Estonian choral societies began to be founded on the German model. The mid-19th century witnessed the emergence of several choirs.
Also in Narva in 1863-1864 the attempts were made to found a choral society Lyra alongside the already existing one (Harmonie).
  Though its foundation was never officially recognized by the local authorities, the statutes of the society were drawn up as well as the coat of arms, flag and seal were designed. The latter ones, presented as the record of the month, will indicate that the symbolics of the orchestral and choral societies has been similar, although the members of the societies spoke different languages.
EAA 3429-1-6, p. 5
May In the year 1899 the Ministry of Education of Russia decided to establish university dormitories. In the same year the idea to build a dormitory for the University of Tartu that could provide housing for 150 students came about. The dormitory, designed by the university architect Reinhold Guleke, was built on Toome Hill in Hetzel Street (nowadays Liivi Street). It was constructed in the years 1901-1904. One of the important issues was to appoint its director. Rector A. N. Filippov appointed Jermolai Gravit as its director in May 1904. The blessing and the official opening of the building took place only on October 24.
  In May we present as a record of the month the appeal of the university rector A. N. Filippov to the Curator of the Tartu Educational District (from May 5, 1904) to confirm Jermolai Gravit as the dormitory director. His term of office started on
1 June.

EAA 384-1-1350, pp. 184, 184v
April The extramarital children of Bernhard von Drewnick
All 9 children of Ravassaare manor owner Bernhard (Berend) Alexander von Drewnick (13.02.1772-17.08.1845) were extramarital children and all they had the family name "von Drewnick". Bernhard von Drewnick had children with two women. The mother of the first children, Anna, the daughter of Kurro Hans, was the servent girl in the manor and she also in the end (April 24, 1834) married with Bernhard Alexander von Drewnick. The mother of two children was another servant girl in the manor, Leeno. Leeno`s son Friedrich August was born on January 6, 1806 and Anna`s daughter Frederike Wilhelmine on February 3, 1806. In the soul revision list of Ravassaare manor from the year 1816 Berend von Drewnick has been enrolled with all his children (dessen natürliche Söhne, dessen natürliche Töchter).
Both mothers, however, are not.
EAA 1674-2-58; 1865-3-168, p. 4, 15
Drewnicks originated from Poland. Peter Drewnick, leasing a number of state estates in the guberniyas of Estonia and Livonia, was awarded with the title of nobleman according to Senat's decree from 4 March 1764 and was enrolled in the list of Livonian noblemen according to the decision of the Livonian Knighthood from 31 January 1765.
In 1797, the family was enrolled in the list of the Estonian noblemen.
On the shield of the Drewnick coat of arms, demarcated horizontally in two fields, there are at the top the black eagle head on a red background, at the bottom the oak tree on a blue background.
March Estonian Old Woman's Scholarship
In 1903, a houseowner in Tartu, Taavet Bergmann (1826-1907), established Taavet and Sofia Bergmann Foundation that was intended to promote Estonian literature and to support the studies of the Estonian youth. A century ago, on March 18, 1904 the statute of the Foundation was approved. At the beginning a number of the leaders of the Estonian national movement like
H. Koppel, J. Hurt, V. Reiman, J. Tõnisson, O. Kallas, K. Parts and
J. Jõgever served as its council members. From the initial
500 roubles the Foundation funds started to grow by means of several donations. Also all the council members themselves were actively looking for the potential donors. For example, H. Koppel asked Mattias Johann Eisen for support as the latter had received a large sum of money (5000 roubles) from his mother. M. J. Eisen, although eagerly willing to donate money for the purpose of promoting Estonian literature, set his own conditions: the money had to be preserved until the death of his mother and interest on it had to be used for supporting his mother.
 

Villem Reiman, who according to
Johann Kõpp was inclined to fanaticism when it came to promoting Estonian national interests, expressed his pleasure in a strange way. He wrote in his letter to Heinrich Koppel: "we will, of course, accept the conditions set by Eisen. Such a fat morsel is not offered that often. We can wait some years till the old woman will lie under the sod".

EAA 2105-1-10, p. 5

  As M. Eisen feared that using money for such a purpose could evoke anger and hatred in his relatives, he asked to keep both his and his mother's name in secret.
EAA 2105-1-10, p. 15

The donation was registered by the Foundation as the
"Estonian Old Woman's Scholarship".
February Count Ludwig August Mellin
Until the 15th century his family was called MALLIN (also Mallyn, Malin) after the village of Mallin near Parchim. Mallins was one of the many German noble families in Lower Saxony and Westphal. On June 4, 1229 the Duke of Mecklenburg Johann granted the chapel of Parchim castle with 6 Haken in the village of Bocken as a fief to Gerhard von Malyn, the forefather of Mellins. The field marshal Jürgen Mellin (2.11.1633 Finland- 13.01.1713 Stettin) received the title of count from the Swedish King Karl XI on August 22, 1696.

The record confirming the awarding of the title of count to Jürgen Mellin

EAA 854-3-543, p. 16
detail: coat of arms

Ludwig August Mellin was born in Tuhala manor in the County of Harju on Janury 23, 1754 as the eigth child of Carl Johann und Anna Gertrude Mellin. Ludwig August Mellin is known in history as the author of "The Atlas of Livonia". His main work was published as a supplement to the A. W. Hupel`s book "Topographische Nachrichten..." in Riga. The atlas consisted of the general map and 14 maps of the counties with a scale of 1:200 000. It contains ca 7000 place names from Estonia. So-called Mellin`s atlas was the greatest achievement of the 18th century cartography in the Russian Baltic provinces.
January In January 16th, 1895, Järvamaa's provost Gustav Felix Rinne, upon the request of Vana-Põltsamaa Parish Council, issues the certificate in Russian language for registering Hans Sutt and his family into the family list of the parish.
The certificate is equipped with the supplement written in Estonian by Rinne where he is defending the use of Estonian in local proceedings.
EAA 1070-1-209